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Neurotransmitter Cinta

www.iluvislam.com
Ahmad Shuib Yahaya
Editor : doraemong13


*Artikel ini mengandungi banyak istilah medical yang mungkin tidak difahami orang kebanyakan. Sila rujuk WikiPedia untuk maklumat lanjut.


ADA APA DENGAN CINTA?


Banyak sebenarnya. Estrogen, Testosterone, Phenylethylamine (PEA), Dopamine, Noradrenaline, Endorphins, Oxytocin dan Serotonin hanya sebahagian daripada kisah cinta ini. Interaksi bahan-bahan kimia semulajadi inilah yang menjadikan cinta seperti cinta yang kita kenali.

Lebih spesifik: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, dan Serotonin terhasil pada fasa mengurat dan terpikat. Oxytocin dan Vasopressin pula dikaitkan dengan hubungan jangka masa panjang. Apabila cinta dan kasih sayang sudah menebal. Bila mata bertentang mata, lidah kelu untuk berkata. Cinta. Cinta lahir dari mata tapi tidak terus ke hati. Cinta menyimpang ke jantung. Jantung menggetarkan ritma yang luar biasa, diterjemahkan di otak melalui sistem saraf autonomik. Terhasillah PEA (thanks to Klein Liebowitz), Dopamine dan Noradrenaline.

Kesemuanya dari salasilah yang sama dengan Amphetamine, juga dikenali sebagai Speed, sejenis dadah berbahaya. Kesannya? Hampir sama dengan Speed. Jantung rasa berdebar, lutut menggeletar. Air liur meleleh, tak dapat ketagih. Makan tak lalu, tidur tak lena. Hidup jadi serba tak kena. Hilang selera makan, peningkatan stamina (chatting berjam-jam tak letih punya...), perpeluhan, hyperactive, loya, gatal-gatal kulit (betullah istilah menggatal tu), peningkatan kadar degupan jantung, tekanan darah tinggi, pening.

Kesannya kepada psikologi pula: banyak cakap, peningkatan konsentrasi dan confident, peningkatan respon dan euphoria (tu yang tergelak sorang2 tu...), insomnia, decrease REM sleep (tu yang tidur tak lena). PEA juga membuatkan seseorang itu yakin, alert dan berani mencuba sesuatu yang baru, sebab itu la kita tengok orang mabuk asmara ni sanggup buat yang pelik-pelik; lari dari rumah, lompat pagar asrama, sanggup buat apa-apa saja untuk yang dikasihi. (konon...)

Tetapi, bila 'dibuang cinta', clash, putus cinta & kesannya amat parah. Otak serta-merta akan berhenti merembes PEA dan kesannya, sama dengan penagih Speed yang tak dapat stok; tak tentu arah, panik, bengong, boleh jadi gila. Tak mustahil medically. Cinta. Euphoria, gayat, ketagihan. Di luar kawalan. Di bawah sedar. Norepinephrine dan Dopamine sering dikaitkan dengan romantik. Mana taknya, ia merupakan desire molecule antara neurotransmitters. Dopamine yang terhasil di kala bercinta berhubungkait dengan penghasilan Oxytocin, sejenis hormon yang diperlukan oleh ibu-ibu yang menyusukan.

Oxytocin kadangkala digelar 'cuddle chemical'. Oxytocin dirembes dgn banyak ketika aktiviti-aktiviti aktif seperti urutan (sebab tu, urut-mengurut ni amat berbahaya bagi sesiapa yang tak nak jatuh cinta, hati-hati, cakar harimau amat baik untuk pasangan suami isteri...), aktiviti-aktiviti lasak dan aktif ketika dating juga adalah salah satu cara yang baik untuk mengurat; roller coaster ke, berlarian-larian, keliling pokok macam hindustan tu semua. Semua ini Oxytocin punya kerja. Oxytocin juga mengurangkan perasaan takut dan meningkatkan kepercayaan, itu kualiti penting dalam percintaan. Kajian juga menunjukkan Oxytocin melembapkan beberapa fungsi pembelajaran dan ingatan. Hmm... tapi masih boleh dipertikaikan, sebab ada yang lebih berjaya dalam akademik bila bercinta. Kalau tidak hati-hati, Oxytocin berlebihan akan menimbulkan masalah. Akibatnya? Bila masing-masing sudah berkehendak, mulut tidak lagi boleh berkata tidak. Tangan mula meraba, mengusap, membelai.

I love You, You love I. Maruah pun tergadai.


CINTA vs NAFSU

Kami hanya bercinta. Saya sayangkan sangat si dia, takkan saya nak rosakkan maruah dia. Aaahh!! Ini semua dongengan hikayat seribu satu malam. Kata hukamak: tidaklah sepasang lelaki dan perempuan yang saling berkasih melainkan matlamatnya hanya satu: SEKS. Tak nak percaya kata hukamak? Sebab kita lagi pandai dari mereka? Nah, ambik ilmu sains. Stimulus berupa kehadiran orang yang disayangi, ke atas pasangan lain jantina yang normal kesihatannya, akan merangsang pusat kawalan seksual dalam otak.

Arnab betina hanya akan bertelur (ovulasi) dan menjadi aktif untuk membiak dengan kehadiran seekor arnab jantan yang menarik minatnya. Itu arnab, tapi manusia, taklah sampai begitu. Cuma apabila kita bercinta, libido amat tinggi, hinggakan setiap rangsangan dan hubungan (dengar suara pun jadi, zaman moden ni, baca SMS, message YM pun jadi) menimbulkan Erotik. Tak percaya? Bukak kamus Greek, tengok EROS maksud LOVE. So, takkan takde kaitan?

Tak percaya jugak? Belajar Medic, tak percaya? Susah nak cakap dah. Saya sayangkan sangat dia, saya peluk dia, tak terangsang pun nafsu saya & awas!!! Sila berjumpa dengan Dr. Ismail Thambi. Anda mungkin mempunyai masalah. Wanita pun sama, cuma pakar ramai sangat, jumpa lah mana-mana pakar sakit puan. Atau jumpa mana-mana pakar Psychiatry, mungkin boleh membantu.

PEA, Dopamine dan Noradrenaline tidak kekal lama. Kesannya hanya antara 12-18 bulan. Cinta kemudian beralih ke tahap lebih mendalam. Otak, yang sudah lali dengan semua ini, menghasilkan Endorphins, sekumpulan bahan kimia semulajadi berstruktur seakan morfin, satu lagi dadah berbahaya. Seperti morfin, Endorphins mempunyai kesan penahan sakit. (lantas, ambillah kapak belahlah dada. No hal punya!)

Sebab itu para mujahid di medan perang (perasaan terlalu teruja dan semangat sebagai contoh berjihad, menghasilkan endorphin dengan banyaknya) tidak peduli akan luka dan cedera. Kita pernah dengar kisah Jaafar At-Tayyar dalam perang Mu'tah. Endorphins juga bertindak sebagai penstabil mood yang jauh lebih tinggi kesan ketagihannya berbanding PEA. Endorphins dirembes dengan banyak ketika disentuh (sapa kata pegang-pegang tangan tu biasa??? Amat berbahaya!!), melihat pemandangan menyedapkan seperti senyuman (senyuman membunuh) atau selepas berfikir positif.

Cinta. Siang terbayang, malam termimpi. Gambar ditatap, bantal didakap. Sehari tidak bertemu dirasa sebulan, sebulan bagaikan setahun. Tapi kalau sudah bertahun-tahun asyik melihat, hati mula rasa meluat. Kesan Endorphins mula hilang, purata hanya bertahan 4 bulan hingga 4 tahun. Dulunya rindu bukan main. Sekarang mula mencari yang lain.

Serotonin. Kesan serotonin kepada seorang insan yang sedang bercinta adalah sama seperti kesannya dalam obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sebab itulah mereka ini tidak boleh memikirkan orang lain. Di mataku, di hatiku hanyalah dirimu.

Atas fakta ini jugalah, ramai berpendapat pesakit yang mengambil SSRI dan ubat-ubat antidepressant yang lain kurang mampu untuk jatuh cinta. Hmmm kesian. Lelaki yang lebih bijak dan teliti, mencari masa yang sesuai untuk membuatkan usahanya lebih berkesan semulajadi, secara fisiologi. Kiraan bulan gadis yang ingin dipikat boleh menjadi amat berguna. Persky dan kawan-kawannya dalam kajian mereka mendapati wanita menunjukkan perasaan dan pergantungan kepada cinta dan rasa ingin disayangi lebih kuat pada waktu sekitar pengovulasian.

Kajian terkini mendapati LH-RF sejenis hormon yang dirembes untuk merangsang LH seterusnya merangsang pengovulasian, berfungsi seperti dopamine dan serotonin dalam hubungan lelaki dan wanita ini. Ya, mungkin sukar untuk mengira dengan tepat kitaran bulan, tetapi kesan estrogen dalam badan wanita mungkin boleh diperhatikan. Perincian? Aah, sukar dan memakan masa. Ini zaman pantas, semuanya segera.

Vasopressin
. Vasopressin berlebihan menjadikan manusia agresif dan cemburu keterlaluan. Sebaliknya, kekurangan hormon ini menjadikan manusia mata keranjang. Yang satu mahukan dua. Yang dua mahukan tiga. Yang tiga mahukan empat. Yang empat mahu semua.

...and they lived happily ever after. Separately.



* Artikel ini pernah diterbitkan di http://perubatan.org



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Agama dan Politik Dipisah atau Diapit?

www.iluvislam.com
*Yussamir Yusof
editor : IskethaykaL

~~~~~~ @@@ ~~~~~~


“Agama dan politik tidak boleh dibawa bersama, agama adalah agama dan politik adalah politik, dua-dua tidak sama. Orang agama hanya duduk di masjid, biar orang yang macam kami ini sahaja yang menerajui negara. Kamu semua mana tahu apa kami buat.
Dalam al-Quran tiada cerita pasal politik.”


Mungkin ini antara kata-kata yang pernah kita dengar atau pernah kita terdengar daripada tokoh-tokoh politik Malaysia. Keluhan demi keluhan dapat saya dengari di sekeliling saya apabila suara-suara ini berkumandang dalam pelbagai medium. Saya tidak tahu mana silapnya kita semua dalam memahami konsep politik dan agama.

Adakah kita memang tidak pernah diajar mengenai agama sejak dari bangku sekolah?
Tidak mungkin.

Adakah kita terlalu sensitif atau proaktif apabila membincangkan isu ini secara umum? Sehinggakan pelbagai peraturan dan sekatan dilakukan bagi menyekat pencambahan ilmu dalam bidang politik di kalangan para pelajar khususnya mahasiswa.

Jika begitu apa yang boleh dibincangkan? Setelah pintu untuk memahami secara ilmiah konsep politik ditutup rapat-rapat.

Selain itu, dengan mengenakan syarat bahawa perbincangan tentang politik boleh dibahaskan, tetapi hanya berputar pada skop yang kecil dan yang ‘baik-baik’ saja, maka adakah itu dipanggil wacana ilmiah?

Sedangkan kita tahu dunia politik ada pelbagai ragam dan recam.

Berbalik kepada isu di atas iaitu adakah agama dan politik ini dibataskan, saya mahu mengajak para pembaca untuk berfikir sejenak tentang perkara ini.

Adakah agama tidak ada tempat dalam politik dan politik itu hanya untuk orang-orang yang bukan beragama?

Saya tidak pasti adakah persoalan ini sesuai untuk ditanya ataupun tidak tetapi pada hemat saya, pemikiran atau ideologi untuk memisahkan politik dengan agama adalah sesuatu yang pelik dan jumud.

Hanya mereka yang tidak beragama sahaja memisahkan dua pentas ini dari kehidupan. Sejarah membuktikan bahawa pemisahan ini adalah inisiatif daripada golongan anti-gereja. Kekecewaan mereka terhadap penguasa gereja yang hanya bertumpu dan berkisar kepada urusan keagamaan sehinggakan melupakan kemajuan dari segi politik dan pembangunan membawa kepada pemberontakan. Setelah beratus tahun peristiwa itu berlaku, ia berulang kembali dalam abad-abad yang moden ini.

Pemisahan antara politk dan agama amat ketara. Ulama’ yang muktabar pandangan-pandangan mereka terhadap politik tidak pernah diambil peduli. Tidak seperti semasa zaman kegemilangan Islam, Ulama’ dan Umara’ memainkan peranan yang besar dalam pembentukan negara yang aman dan maju.

Kaedah siasah (politik) Islam mula dianggap tidak sesuai untuk zaman moden yang mencabar ini. Mereka menoleh ke belakang mencari kaedah-kaedah lama yang ditinggalkan Machiveli, Marxism dan lain-lain bagi perjalanan politik mereka. Negara-negara Islam yang mengikut corak politik kotor dan ‘tidak peduli’ tanpa berlandaskan tuntutan agama sudah mula kelihatan. Parti-parti yang di dalamnya terdapat Muslim, bercakaran sesama sendiri kerana perbezaan yang kecil. Persamaan dalam sudut akidah mula diketepikan dan nasihat-nasihat yang baik dari pihak lawan ditinggalkan kerana takut. Takut dengan bayang-bayang sendiri. Jika kita boleh duduk semeja dan berbincang semeja dengan orang yang bukan seakidah, tetapi kenapa kita tidak boleh duduk semeja untuk membincangkan kebaikan bersama di kalangan seakidah? Itulah yang terjadi apabila agama dan politik dipisahkan sejauh selat Tebrau. Mana mungkin negara diberkati Allah.

Zikir dan fikirlah, demi anak bangsa kita pada masa hadapan.



“Jika amanat disia-siakan, maka tunggulah kehancurannya”. Ada yang bertanya “bagaimana mensia-siakannya? Baginda menjawab, “Jika urusan diserahkan kepada bukan ahlinya, maka tunggulah saat kehancurannya”.(Bukhari)


* Yussamir Yusof merupakan penulis jemputan iluvislam.com dan beliau giat menulis menerusi blognya di www.yussamir.com. Artikel yang sama boleh dirujuk di sini



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Suraat Al-Fil : Dhu Nafr was captured and taken along with the army of Abrahah.






Written by Ibn Kathir
Friday, 10 November 2006


The army continued on its way until it came to the land of Khath`am where it was confronted by Nufayl bin Habib Al-Kath`ami along with his people, the Shahran and Nahis tribes. They fought Abrahah but he defeated them and captured Nufayl bin Habib. Initially he wanted to kill him, but he forgave him and took him as his guide to show him the way to Al-Hijaz.

When they approached the area of At-Ta'if, its people -- the people of Thaqif -- went out to Abrahah. They wanted to appease him because they were fearful for their place of worship, which they called Al-Lat. Abrahah was kind to them and they sent a man named Abu Righal with him as a guide. When they reached a place known as Al-Mughammas, which is near Makkah, they settled there. Then he sent his troops on a foray to capture the camels and other grazing animals of the Makkans, which they did, including about two hundred camels belonging to `Abdul-Muttalib. The leader of this particular expedition was a man named Al-Aswad bin Mafsud. According to what Ibn Ishaq mentioned, some of the Arabs used to satirize him (because of the part he played in this historical in this historical incident). Then Abrahah sent an emissary named Hanatah Al-Himyari to enter Makkah, commanding him to bring the head of the Quraysh to him. He also commanded him to inform him that the king will not fight the people of Makkah unless they try to prevent him from the destruction of the Ka`bah. Hanatah went to the city and he was directed to `Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim, to whom he relayed Abrahah's message. `Abdul-Muttalib replied, "By Allah! We have no wish to fight him, nor are we in any position to do so. This is the Sacred House of Allah, and the house of His Khalil, Ibrahim, and if He wishes to prevent him (Abrahah) from (destroying) it, it is His House and His Sacred Place (to do so). And if He lets him approach it, by Allah, We have no means to defend it from him.'' So Hanatah told him, "Come with me to him (Abrahah).'' And so `Abdul-Muttalib went with him. When Abrahah saw him, he was impressed by him, because `Abdul-Muttalib was a large and handsome man. So Abrahah descended from his seat and sat with him on a carpet on the ground. Then he asked his translator to say to him, "What do you need'' `Abdul-Muttalib replied to the translator, "I want the king to return my camels which he has taken from me which are two hundred in number.'' Abrahah then told his translator to tell him, "I was impressed by you when I first saw you, but now I withdraw from you after you have spoken to me. You are asking me about two hundred camels which I have taken from you and you leave the matter of a house which is (the foundation of) religion and the religion of your fathers, which I have come to destroy and you do not speak to me about it'' `Abdul-Muttalib said to him, "Verily, I am the lord of the camels. As for the House, it has its Lord Who will defend it.'' Abrahah said, "I cannot be prevented (from destroying it).'' `Abdul-Muttalib answered, "Then do so.'' It is said that a number of the chiefs of the Arabs accompanied `Abdul-Muttalib and offered Abrahah a third of the wealth of the tribe of Tihamah if he would withdraw from the House, but he refused and returned `Abdul-Muttalib's camels to him. `Abdul-Muttalib then returned to his people and ordered them to leave Makkah and seek shelter at the top of the mountains, fearful of the excesses which might be committed by the army against them. Then he took hold of the metal ring of the door of the Ka`bah, and along with a number of Quraysh, he called upon Allah to give them victory over Abrahah and his army. `Abdul-Muttalib said, while hanging on to the ring of the Ka`bah's door, "There is no matter more important to any man right now than the defense of his livestock and property. So, O my Lord! Defend Your property. Their cross and their cunning will not be victorious over your cunning by the time morning comes.'' According to Ibn Ishaq, then `Abdul-Muttalib let go of the metal ring of the door of the Ka`bah, and they left Makkah and ascended to the mountains tops. Muqatil bin Sulayman mentioned that they left one hundred animals (camels) tied near the Ka`bah hoping that some of the army would take some of them without a right to do so, and thus bring about the vengeance of Allah upon themselves.

When morning came, Abrahah prepared to enter the sacred city of Makkah. He prepared the elephant named Mahmud. He mobilized his army, and they turned the elephant towards the Ka`bah. At that moment Nufayl bin Habib approached it and stood next to it, and taking it by its ear, he said, "Kneel, Mahmud! Then turn around and return directly to whence you came. For verily, you are in the Sacred City of Allah.'' Then he released the elephant's ear and it knelt, after which Nufayl bin Habib left and hastened to the mountains. Abrahah's men beat the elephant in an attempt to make it rise, but it refused. They beat it on its head with axes and used hooked staffs to pull it out of its resistance and make it stand, but it refused. So they turned him towards Yemen, and he rose and walked quickly. Then they turned him towards Ash-Sham and he did likewise. Then they turned him towards the east and he did the same thing. Then they turned him towards Makkah and he knelt down again. Then Allah sent against them the birds from the sea, like swallows and herons. Each bird carried three stones the size of chickpeas and lentils, one in each claw and one in its beak. Everyone who was hit by them was destroyed, though not all of them were hit. They fled in panic along the road asking about the whereabouts of Nufayl that he might point out to them the way home. Nufayl, however, was at the top of the mountain with the Quraysh and the Arabs of the Hijaz observing the wrath which Allah had caused to descend on the people of the elephant. Nufayl then began to say, "Where will they flee when the One True God is the Pursuer For Al-Ashram is defeated and not the victor. Ibn Ishaq reported that Nufayl said these lines of poetry at that time,

"Didn't you live with continued support We favored you all with a revolving eye in the morning (i.e., a guide along the way). If you saw, but you did not see it at the side of the rock covered mountain that which we saw. Then you will excuse me and praise my affair, and do not grieve over what is lost between us. I praised Allah when I saw the birds, and I feared that the stones might be thrown down upon us. So all the people are asking about the whereabouts of Nufayl, as if I have some debt that I owe the Abyssinians.'' `Ata' bin Yasar and others have said that all of them were not struck by the torment at this hour of retribution. Rather some of them were destroyed immediately, while others were gradually broken down limb by limb while trying to escape. Abrahah was of those who was broken down limb by limb until he eventually died in the land of Khath`am. Ibn Ishaq said that they left (Makkah) being struck down and destroyed along every path and at every water spring. Abrahah's body was afflicted by the pestilence of the stones and his army carried him away with them as he was falling apart piece by piece, until they arrived back in San`a'. When they arrived there he was but like the baby chick of a bird. And he did not die until his heart fell out of his chest. So they claim. Ibn Ishaq said that when Allah sent Muhammad with the prophethood, among the things that he used to recount to the Quraysh as blessings that Allah had favored them with of His bounties, was His defending them from the attack of the Abyssinians. Due to this they (the Quraysh) were allowed to remain (safely in Makkah) for a period of time. Thus, Allah said,

[أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَـبِ الْفِيلِ - أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِى تَضْلِيلٍ - وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ - تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ - فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولِ ]
(Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the Owners of the Elephant Did He not make their plot go astray And He sent against them birds, in flocks (Ababil). Striking them with stones of Sijjil. And He made them like `Asf, Ma'kul.)

[لإِيلَـفِ قُرَيْشٍ - إِيلَـفِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيْفِ - فَلْيَعْبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ - الَّذِى أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خوْفٍ ]
(For the Ilaf of the Quraysh, their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer. So, let them worship the Lord of this House, Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear.) (106:1-4) meaning, that Allah would not alter their situation because Allah wanted good for them if they accepted Him. Ibn Hisham said, "Al-Ababil are the groups, as the Arabs do not speak of just one (bird).'' He also said, "As for As-Sijjil, Yunus An-Nahwi and Abu `Ubaydah have informed me that according to the Arabs, it means something hard and solid.'' He then said, "Some of the commentators have mentioned that it is actually two Persian words that the Arabs have made into one word. The two words are Sanj and Jil, Sanj meaning stones, and Jil meaning clay. The rocks are of these two types: stone and clay.'' He continued saying, "Al-`Asf are the leaves of the crops that are not gathered. One of them is called `Asfah.'' This is the end of what he mentioned. Hammad bin Salamah narrated from `Asim, who related from Zirr, who related from `Abdullah and Abu Salamah bin `Abdur-Rahman that they said,

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds Ababil.) "In groups.'' Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak both said, "Ababil means some of them following after others.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah both said, "Ababil means many.'' Mujahid said, "Ababil means in various, successive groups.'' Ibn Zayd said, "Ababil means different, coming from here and there. They came upon them from everywhere.'' Al-Kasa'i said, "I heard some of the grammarians saying, "The singular of Ababil is Ibil.'' Ibn Jarir recorded from Ishaq bin `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Nawfal that he said concerning Allah's statement,

[وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ ]
(And He sent against them birds, Ababil.) "This means in divisions just as camels march in divisions (in their herds).'' It is reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ ]
(And He sent against them birds, Ababil.) "They had snouts like the beaks of birds and paws like the paws of dogs.'' It has been reported that `Ikrimah said commenting on Allah's statement,

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds, Ababil.) "They were green birds that came out of the sea and they had heads like the heads of predatory animals.'' It has been reported from `Ubayd bin `Umayr that he commented:

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds, Ababil.) "They were black birds of the sea that had stones in their beaks and claws.'' And the chains of narration (for these statements) are all authentic. It is reported from `Ubayd bin `Umayr that he said, "When Allah wanted to destroy the People of the Elephant, he sent birds upon them that came from sea swallows. Each of the birds was carrying three small stones -- two stones with its feet and one stone in its beak. They came until they gathered in rows over their heads. Then they gave a loud cry and threw what was in their claws and beaks. Thus, no stone fell upon the head of any man except that it came out of his behind (i.e., it went through him), and it did not fall on any part of his body except that it came out from the opposite side. Then Allah sent a severe wind that struck the stones and increased them in force. Thus, they were all destroyed.''

Dhu Nafr was captured and taken along with the army of Abrahah.

The army continued on its way until it came to the land of Khath`am where it was confronted by Nufayl bin Habib Al-Kath`ami along with his people, the Shahran and Nahis tribes. They fought Abrahah but he defeated them and captured Nufayl bin Habib. Initially he wanted to kill him, but he forgave him and took him as his guide to show him the way to Al-Hijaz.

When they approached the area of At-Ta'if, its people -- the people of Thaqif -- went out to Abrahah. They wanted to appease him because they were fearful for their place of worship, which they called Al-Lat. Abrahah was kind to them and they sent a man named Abu Righal with him as a guide. When they reached a place known as Al-Mughammas, which is near Makkah, they settled there. Then he sent his troops on a foray to capture the camels and other grazing animals of the Makkans, which they did, including about two hundred camels belonging to `Abdul-Muttalib. The leader of this particular expedition was a man named Al-Aswad bin Mafsud. According to what Ibn Ishaq mentioned, some of the Arabs used to satirize him (because of the part he played in this historical in this historical incident). Then Abrahah sent an emissary named Hanatah Al-Himyari to enter Makkah, commanding him to bring the head of the Quraysh to him. He also commanded him to inform him that the king will not fight the people of Makkah unless they try to prevent him from the destruction of the Ka`bah. Hanatah went to the city and he was directed to `Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim, to whom he relayed Abrahah's message. `Abdul-Muttalib replied, "By Allah! We have no wish to fight him, nor are we in any position to do so. This is the Sacred House of Allah, and the house of His Khalil, Ibrahim, and if He wishes to prevent him (Abrahah) from (destroying) it, it is His House and His Sacred Place (to do so). And if He lets him approach it, by Allah, We have no means to defend it from him.'' So Hanatah told him, "Come with me to him (Abrahah).'' And so `Abdul-Muttalib went with him. When Abrahah saw him, he was impressed by him, because `Abdul-Muttalib was a large and handsome man. So Abrahah descended from his seat and sat with him on a carpet on the ground. Then he asked his translator to say to him, "What do you need'' `Abdul-Muttalib replied to the translator, "I want the king to return my camels which he has taken from me which are two hundred in number.'' Abrahah then told his translator to tell him, "I was impressed by you when I first saw you, but now I withdraw from you after you have spoken to me. You are asking me about two hundred camels which I have taken from you and you leave the matter of a house which is (the foundation of) religion and the religion of your fathers, which I have come to destroy and you do not speak to me about it'' `Abdul-Muttalib said to him, "Verily, I am the lord of the camels. As for the House, it has its Lord Who will defend it.'' Abrahah said, "I cannot be prevented (from destroying it).'' `Abdul-Muttalib answered, "Then do so.'' It is said that a number of the chiefs of the Arabs accompanied `Abdul-Muttalib and offered Abrahah a third of the wealth of the tribe of Tihamah if he would withdraw from the House, but he refused and returned `Abdul-Muttalib's camels to him. `Abdul-Muttalib then returned to his people and ordered them to leave Makkah and seek shelter at the top of the mountains, fearful of the excesses which might be committed by the army against them. Then he took hold of the metal ring of the door of the Ka`bah, and along with a number of Quraysh, he called upon Allah to give them victory over Abrahah and his army. `Abdul-Muttalib said, while hanging on to the ring of the Ka`bah's door, "There is no matter more important to any man right now than the defense of his livestock and property. So, O my Lord! Defend Your property. Their cross and their cunning will not be victorious over your cunning by the time morning comes.'' According to Ibn Ishaq, then `Abdul-Muttalib let go of the metal ring of the door of the Ka`bah, and they left Makkah and ascended to the mountains tops. Muqatil bin Sulayman mentioned that they left one hundred animals (camels) tied near the Ka`bah hoping that some of the army would take some of them without a right to do so, and thus bring about the vengeance of Allah upon themselves.

When morning came, Abrahah prepared to enter the sacred city of Makkah. He prepared the elephant named Mahmud. He mobilized his army, and they turned the elephant towards the Ka`bah. At that moment Nufayl bin Habib approached it and stood next to it, and taking it by its ear, he said, "Kneel, Mahmud! Then turn around and return directly to whence you came. For verily, you are in the Sacred City of Allah.'' Then he released the elephant's ear and it knelt, after which Nufayl bin Habib left and hastened to the mountains. Abrahah's men beat the elephant in an attempt to make it rise, but it refused. They beat it on its head with axes and used hooked staffs to pull it out of its resistance and make it stand, but it refused. So they turned him towards Yemen, and he rose and walked quickly. Then they turned him towards Ash-Sham and he did likewise. Then they turned him towards the east and he did the same thing. Then they turned him towards Makkah and he knelt down again. Then Allah sent against them the birds from the sea, like swallows and herons. Each bird carried three stones the size of chickpeas and lentils, one in each claw and one in its beak. Everyone who was hit by them was destroyed, though not all of them were hit. They fled in panic along the road asking about the whereabouts of Nufayl that he might point out to them the way home. Nufayl, however, was at the top of the mountain with the Quraysh and the Arabs of the Hijaz observing the wrath which Allah had caused to descend on the people of the elephant. Nufayl then began to say, "Where will they flee when the One True God is the Pursuer For Al-Ashram is defeated and not the victor. Ibn Ishaq reported that Nufayl said these lines of poetry at that time,

"Didn't you live with continued support We favored you all with a revolving eye in the morning (i.e., a guide along the way). If you saw, but you did not see it at the side of the rock covered mountain that which we saw. Then you will excuse me and praise my affair, and do not grieve over what is lost between us. I praised Allah when I saw the birds, and I feared that the stones might be thrown down upon us. So all the people are asking about the whereabouts of Nufayl, as if I have some debt that I owe the Abyssinians.'' `Ata' bin Yasar and others have said that all of them were not struck by the torment at this hour of retribution. Rather some of them were destroyed immediately, while others were gradually broken down limb by limb while trying to escape. Abrahah was of those who was broken down limb by limb until he eventually died in the land of Khath`am. Ibn Ishaq said that they left (Makkah) being struck down and destroyed along every path and at every water spring. Abrahah's body was afflicted by the pestilence of the stones and his army carried him away with them as he was falling apart piece by piece, until they arrived back in San`a'. When they arrived there he was but like the baby chick of a bird. And he did not die until his heart fell out of his chest. So they claim. Ibn Ishaq said that when Allah sent Muhammad with the prophethood, among the things that he used to recount to the Quraysh as blessings that Allah had favored them with of His bounties, was His defending them from the attack of the Abyssinians. Due to this they (the Quraysh) were allowed to remain (safely in Makkah) for a period of time. Thus, Allah said,

[أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَـبِ الْفِيلِ - أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِى تَضْلِيلٍ - وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ - تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ - فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولِ ]
(Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the Owners of the Elephant Did He not make their plot go astray And He sent against them birds, in flocks (Ababil). Striking them with stones of Sijjil. And He made them like `Asf, Ma'kul.)

[لإِيلَـفِ قُرَيْشٍ - إِيلَـفِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيْفِ - فَلْيَعْبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ - الَّذِى أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خوْفٍ ]
(For the Ilaf of the Quraysh, their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer. So, let them worship the Lord of this House, Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear.) (106:1-4) meaning, that Allah would not alter their situation because Allah wanted good for them if they accepted Him. Ibn Hisham said, "Al-Ababil are the groups, as the Arabs do not speak of just one (bird).'' He also said, "As for As-Sijjil, Yunus An-Nahwi and Abu `Ubaydah have informed me that according to the Arabs, it means something hard and solid.'' He then said, "Some of the commentators have mentioned that it is actually two Persian words that the Arabs have made into one word. The two words are Sanj and Jil, Sanj meaning stones, and Jil meaning clay. The rocks are of these two types: stone and clay.'' He continued saying, "Al-`Asf are the leaves of the crops that are not gathered. One of them is called `Asfah.'' This is the end of what he mentioned. Hammad bin Salamah narrated from `Asim, who related from Zirr, who related from `Abdullah and Abu Salamah bin `Abdur-Rahman that they said,

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds Ababil.) "In groups.'' Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak both said, "Ababil means some of them following after others.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah both said, "Ababil means many.'' Mujahid said, "Ababil means in various, successive groups.'' Ibn Zayd said, "Ababil means different, coming from here and there. They came upon them from everywhere.'' Al-Kasa'i said, "I heard some of the grammarians saying, "The singular of Ababil is Ibil.'' Ibn Jarir recorded from Ishaq bin `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Nawfal that he said concerning Allah's statement,

[وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ ]
(And He sent against them birds, Ababil.) "This means in divisions just as camels march in divisions (in their herds).'' It is reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ ]
(And He sent against them birds, Ababil.) "They had snouts like the beaks of birds and paws like the paws of dogs.'' It has been reported that `Ikrimah said commenting on Allah's statement,

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds, Ababil.) "They were green birds that came out of the sea and they had heads like the heads of predatory animals.'' It has been reported from `Ubayd bin `Umayr that he commented:

[طَيْراً أَبَابِيلَ]
(birds, Ababil.) "They were black birds of the sea that had stones in their beaks and claws.'' And the chains of narration (for these statements) are all authentic. It is reported from `Ubayd bin `Umayr that he said, "When Allah wanted to destroy the People of the Elephant, he sent birds upon them that came from sea swallows. Each of the birds was carrying three small stones -- two stones with its feet and one stone in its beak. They came until they gathered in rows over their heads. Then they gave a loud cry and threw what was in their claws and beaks. Thus, no stone fell upon the head of any man except that it came out of his behind (i.e., it went through him), and it did not fall on any part of his body except that it came out from the opposite side. Then Allah sent a severe wind that struck the stones and increased them in force. Thus, they were all destroyed.''

Source : http://www.mquran.org/content/view/9139/2/




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Mysterious Sea Creatures Found In Antarctic Waters


ScienceDaily (Feb. 21, 2008) — The return of the last of three Antarctic marine science research vessels marks the culmination of one of Australia's most ambitious International Polar Year projects, a census of life in the icy Southern Ocean known as the Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census (CEAMARC).

Australia's Aurora Australis and collaborating vessels L'Astrolabe (France) and Umitaka Maru (Japan) have returned from the Southern Ocean, their decks overflowing with a vast array of ocean life including a number of previously unknown species collected from the cold waters near the East Antarctic land mass.

While the French and Japanese ships have been examining the mid and upper ocean environment over the past two months, Aurora Australis had her eyes fixed on the ocean floor, using both traditional and innovative sampling equipment to capture the diversity of life.

Aurora Australis voyage leader Dr Martin Riddle says that their expedition uncovered a remarkably rich, colourful and complex range of marine life in this previously unknown environment.

"Some of the video footage we have collected is really stunning – it's amazing to be able to navigate undersea mountains and valleys and actually see what the animals look like in their undisturbed state," he said.


CEAMARC is part of the international Census of Antarctic Marine Life, coordinated by the Australian Antarctic Division, which will see some 16 voyages to Antarctic waters during this, the International Polar Year (2007-2009).

The Census of Antarctic Marine Life will survey the biodiversity of Antarctic slopes, abyssal plains, open water, and under disintegrating ice shelves. The census aims to determine species biodiversity, abundance and distribution and establish a baseline dataset from which future changes can be observed.



Source: ScienceDaily

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Banged Head!!!


Ouch!
My head banged to a corner of a wall in my lecture class yesterday. It was very painful. I'm feeling like fainted and bleeded, my head was dizzy, but I try to acted like normal.

I was trying to stand up from my chair that time when suddenly I feel that sharp painful feeling on my head. My two friends sitting near me (we were discussing about a roleplay - "A salesperson of iPhone try to initiate a sale to a couple of grandma and grandpa - funny roleplay") laughed at me.

Laugh at other person's pain? :P Is that funny? Though that I'm feeling very painful on my head, they were laughing and only be serious when they saw my frowned-painful face.

"Are you okay Nurul?"

- "No, I'm not okay I guess".

And then I walked to the other corner of the class to look for a place for our roleplay practice. Suddenly my friend said:

"Nurul, are you okay? You look like want to faint..."

Well, I was dizzy. Very dizzy. But I acted as normal, be cheerful as always. Be FANTASTIC and BOMBASTIC as usual. And my friends feel relief to see me in the 'OK' condition. They laughed watching our grandma and grandpa roleplay, and I really glad they love it. haha.

I was home at midnight last night, feeling so exhausted. Walking from Petaling Jaya to Sungai Besi (of course by using the public transport - the LRTs - expecting me walk in that big miles? haha.. Not in that middle of night. :P ). I was so hungry and thirsty. I bought iced-Milo in a stall near my house and when I'm in the house, I prepared myself my beloved Kuetiau Kungfu noodle. Nyum Nyum... This time with squids in my dish. I was so delighted. Hehe.

After I settled down, I consume more than 3 types of medicine - for my fever, flu, migraine etc. and I switched on my laptop to continue doing my report assignment. I didn't realized when I fallen asleep and when I awaken this morning, it was 9 a.m.!!!

I was lateeeeeeeeeeeeee!!!

My class starts at 9 o'clock and I usually get out from my house to travel to Stamford College, Petaling Jaya at 6.45 a.m.

Arghhh..

I decided to go to class.

My mobile phone rung when I was in the LRT. It was in Cheras. It appeared "Lina Scicom is calling" on the screen.

"Hello."

"Hello, Nurul. Why are you absent today?"

"Lina, I'm glad you call. I'm on my way, I'm in the LRT right now. I woke up late, is Mr. Jude there in class?"

"Yes, he is in class. We are all doing our assignment right now."

"Is Reen there?" (Reen is my group member of the report assignment. Supposedly, there are 3 members in our group, 1 member is having his Medical leave for a week - German fever he claimed - and its the first time I heard of that "German fever". I sounds dangerous. So, it's only Reen left to finish up the report and I couldn't let Reen alone finish up the assignment. Due date is tomorrow. I decided to go to college though its very late)

"Yes, Reen is here"

"Well, tell Reen, don't worry. I'm on my way to college. :)"

"Ok, we will wait for you ok? Bye."

"Thanks for calling, bye Lina."

I arrived at 11.50 a.m. - exhausted, sweating terribly -

"Why are you late Nurul?". Our class tutor, Papa Jude asked.

"I'm so sorry sir. I consumed loads of medications last night and I woke up late. I'm very sorry sir" - say my words with exhausted tone.

"Okay, relax, relax, take your breaths first. Have a seat first. Your friends are working on the report now."

"Thank you sir".

I walked to the back of the class. Staright, I bring out my laptop from my bag and I switch it on.

"It's good you come to class Nurul." Amy greeted me.

"Nurul, how are you?" Mira greeted me.

"Though that I'm exhausted, I'm feeling GREAT! FANTASTIC Mira! ;) And how do you do?" I motivate myself to be energatic in class.

"Wow, great Nurul! I love your positive thinking! Let's work on the assignment together. ;)" Mira said.

"Sure! Come!"

And its true indeed, POSITIVE THINKING always makes a person's day.
Happy positive thinking all! ;D

;D



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